The tooth

In this video I want to discuss some of the
structures of the tooth. Now depending on which class you are in of
course you are going to learn more about some teeth than others. But this tooth is just a generic tooth model,
so I am only going to discuss what we can see on the model. Now on the model you can see the part of the
tooth that is external to the gums, or the gingiva. That portion of the tooth is known as the
crown of the tooth. The portion of the tooth that runs through
the gums, the gums anatomically are known as the gingiva, that portion of the tooth
is known as the neck. So we have the crown, the neck, and then the
portion of the tooth that is embedded in the gomphosis of the tooth socket is known as
the root of the tooth. So we have a crown, we have a neck, and we
have a root. Now the crown is covered with the hardest
substance in the human body, which is enamel. Enamel, very hard substance covering our teeth. Enamel is an off-white color. Mostly white, but not quite white. The bulk of the tooth however is not made
of enamel. The bulk of the tooth is made of a material
called dentin. Dentin. And if you look carefully at the tooth you
can kind of see some rays laid out here. Those are known as dentinal tubules. Those are actually just the cellular processes
of the cells that lay down the material known as dentin. Now inside the tooth the tooth is hollow. And it is hollowed out in an area known as
the pulp cavity. And the pulp cavity is filled with blood vessels
and nerves. Any of you that have ever had to have a filling
are quite well aware that there are nerve inside your tooth. Those nerves and blood vessels got into the
tooth, and left the tooth via a canal that runs through the root known as the root canal. The root canal is an anatomical structure. A root canal is a dental procedure. So here we are talking about the structure
known as the root canal. And at the very tip of the root of a tooth
there is a small foramen known as the apical foramen. That is where the nerves and the arteries
can come into the tooth and the veins can leave the tooth. So the root canal. Now surrounding the root of the tooth we have
a very thin layer of tissue known as cementum. On this model this light blue color is the
cementum. The cementum. Teeth are modified bones. Based on the angle of this tooth we will assume
this is the mandible. Bones are held to bones with ligaments. Teeth are no exception. If you look carefully on this model you see
these little white lines going from the cementum and the root of the tooth across to the mandible. Those little white lines are known as periodontal
ligaments. Periodontal ligaments. They help hold the tooth in place within that
gomphosis known as the tooth socket. So to recap, we have the crown which is made
of dentin capped with enamel. We have the neck of the tooth where it runs
through the gingiva, or the gums. Inside we have a pulp cavity where we will
find blood vessels and nerves. And leading through the root of the tooth
we will find the root canal open at the end of the root via an apical foramen. The root of the tooth is covered with a membrane
known as cementum. And spanning between the tooth and the bone,
either the mandible or the maxilla, will be small ligaments known as periodontal ligaments.

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